How to make an earthquake resistant building?

How to make an earthquake resistant building?

According to the news on the website HowStuffWorks, it started with an 8.8 magnitude earthquake in the city of Concepcion in February 2010 and shook Chile intermittently throughout 2010-2011. Then the tsunami from the 9.0 magnitude earthquake that struck Japan in March 2011 killed an estimated 29,000 people and damaged nuclear reactors. After that, the 5.8 magnitude earthquake that occurred in the state of Virginia in August 2011 also brought hearts to the mouth. However, the earthquake with a magnitude of 7.2 to 5.6 that occurred in Van, Turkey, once again showed that buildings kill people, not earthquakes.

Earthquakes will continue to happen. For centuries, engineers have believed that earthquakes don't kill people, buildings do. The tsunami caused by the earthquake is excluded. However, not all earthquakes cause tsunamis.

Many engineers and architects consider it possible to construct earthquake-proof buildings. The cost of these buildings will be high. Buildings designed to prevent total destruction and save people's lives will be crucial in the future.

The scientific world, which has built earthquake-resistant buildings in the past years, is advancing rapidly. But this is not exactly a new issue. In fact, a few historical buildings still stand, although they are on the active fault line. The main one is the Hagia Sophia, which is located in Istanbul and was built in 537 AD. Nearly 20 years after its completion, this area was shaken by the earthquake. Engineers evaluated the situation and decided to rebuild the structure. This time they built a smaller building. They strengthened the entire structure from the outside.

Today the techniques are slightly different, but the basic principles are the same. Before coming to the subject of earthquake resistant buildings, let's look at how earthquakes affect man-made buildings.

The effect of the earthquake on buildings

Earthquakes occur when pieces of rock in the earth's crust slide and rub against each other. This kind of movement can go on for hundreds of kilometers. When pieces of earth's crust suddenly slide and move, they release enormous amounts of energy. At the surface of the earth's crust, seismic waves cause the earth to tremble and shake. Sometimes this is very severe.

Geologists divide seismic waves into 2 categories: body waves and surface waves. Body waves, including P and S waves, propagate towards the interior of the earth's crust. P waves are like sound waves, they press and expand where they pass. S waves, on the other hand, are similar to water waves, causing the places they pass to move up and down. While S waves can only travel on solid ground, P waves can pass through both liquids and solids.

When the earthquake starts, P waves first create small waves, then S waves follow. Next come the slower surface waves. Geologists call these surface waves Love and Rayleigh. Both move horizontally below ground, but Rayleigh waves can also move vertically. Surface waves create long waves of waves that can reach far and cause more shock and damage.

If earthquakes only moved vertically, buildings would take less damage. Because all the buildings are designed to withstand vertical forces. However, the rotating waves of the earthquake, especially the Love waves, exert excessive horizontal force on the buildings. These forces cause side accelerations (acceleration). Scientists measure these as G-forces. For example, a 6-7 magnitude earthquake causes 1G acceleration. The sudden movement to one side places enormous stress on the structural elements of the building such as columns, walls, floors and beams. If this stress is great enough, the building can collapse or be severely damaged.

The other critical factor is the bottom layer of a house or skyscraper. Buildings built on bottom rocks are more durable because their ground is solid. Soft or filled ground is very dangerous. Obviously, engineers have to choose their construction sites very carefully.

Earthquake resistant building designs:

Before starting a major construction project, engineers must assess the seismic activity of the construction site. National Seismic Hazard Maps, prepared by the American Geological Survey, assist engineers in this process. These maps show the forecast of ground movements over the next 50 years.
In high-risk areas, when engineers and architects design buildings, bridges or highways, they have to meet stricter standards to make sure they can withstand earthquakes. At the same time, in low-risk areas, these maps save engineers from over-planning.

Engineers who determine the seismic risk of the construction site have to propose an appropriate building design. In general, they stay away from irregular and asymmetrical designs. Instead, seismic engineering

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